EPS Frequently Asked Questions [FAQ]
  1. What Is TAIS?
  2. What Does TAIS Measure?
  3. How Is TAIS Used?
  4. How Does TAIS Differ From Other Inventories?
  5. What Can You Tell Me About The EPS On Line Assessment Service?
  6. How Is TAIS Used In The Selection and Screening Process?
  7. How Is TAIS Used In Teambuilding?
  8. How Is TAIS Used For Performance Enhancement and/or Management Development?
  9. When and How Would I Use the TAIS Profile?
  10. When and How Would I Use the Business Team Building Report?
  11. When and How Would I Use the Sales Report?
  12. When and How Would I Use the Athletes Mental Edge Report?
  13. When and How Would I Use the Business Leader Report?
  14. When and How Would I Use the Two-Person Interaction Report?
  15. When and How Would I Use the High Potential Inventory (HPI)?
  16. When and How Would I Use the Inventory of Concentration and Communication Skills Rating Scale?
  17. Why Would I Want to Create Subgroups?
  18. Why Would I Want to Generate a Mean TAIS Profile?
  19. Why Would I Want to Create My Own Normative Data?
  20. What Other Products and/or Services Does EPS Provide?

What Is TAIS?

A 144 item self assessment questionnaire that takes approximately 20 minutes to complete.

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What Does TAIS Measure?

Twenty different, performance relevant concentration skills and behavioral attributes. These include:
  1. External Awareness - measure of the individuals "street sense", ability to react quickly and instinctively to things going on around him/her, and sensitivity to the environment and to the non-verbal (emotional) messages people often send.
  2. External Distractibility - measure of the individual's tendency to become distracted by task irrelevant things going on in the environment.
  3. Analytical Skills - measure of the individual's ability to plan, to think strategically, to anticipate the consequences of various courses of action, and to problem solve.
  4. Internal Distractibility - measure of the tendency for the person to become distracted by thoughts and/or feelings.
  5. Focus and Attention to Detail - measure of the individuals tolerance for engaging in repetitive behavior, and for attending to details.
  6. Under inclusion - Measure of the tendency to either become too focused internally, or externally. Performance mistakes are made because the person fails to make needed shifts in their focus of attention.


  7. Information Processing - Measure of the individual's need for, and enjoyment of change as well as an indication of their ability to cope with shifting priorities and a relative lack of structure.
  8. Behavior Control - Measure of the individual's flexibility and/or willingness to think outside of the box and bend the rules at times.


  9. Control - Measure of the persons willingness to take the initiative and comfort in, and need for, a leadership role.
  10. Self-Esteem - Measure of the individuals feelings of confidence and self-worth across a variety of performance settings.
  11. Physical Competitiveness - Measure of the individuals enjoyment of competitive physical activity.
  12. Speed of Decisions - Measure of the extent to which an individual is likely to "obsess" and/or overanalyze situations before making a decision.


  13. Extroversion - Measure of the comfort and need an individual has for socializing and/or being actively involved with others.
  14. Introversion - Measure of the individuals enjoyment of working alone, and need for, personal space and privacy.


  15. Intellectual Expression - Measure of the individuals comfort with the _expression of ideas, and with having thought processes challenged.
  16. Negative Affect Expression - Measure of the willingness and comfort of the person when it comes to expressing feelings of anger and frustration and disappointment, to confront and challenge others.
  17. Positive Affect Expression - Measure of the level of comfort the individual has along with his/her willingness to express positive feelings and support for others.


  18. Depression - Measure of the individuals current level of depression and/or self-doubt.
  19. Focus Over Time - Measure of the individuals willingness to make long term sacrifices in various areas of his/her life for the sake of accomplishing specific long term goals or objectives.
  20. Performance Under Pressure - Measure of the individuals comfort in, and willingness to assume a leadership role in high pressure situations.
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How Is TAIS Used?

The characteristics TAIS measures can be thought of as the building blocks of more complicated behaviors, for example:
  1. Leadership - Within a business setting consists of high scores on the Control, Self-Esteem, Intellectual Expressiveness, and the Analytical Skills scale. Within a sports environment, leadership is associated with high scores on Control, Self-Esteem, Physical Competitiveness, and the Focus and Attention to Detail scales.
  2. Emotional Control - Is associated with low scores on the External and Internal Distractibility, Behavior Control, and Negative Affect Expression scales.
  3. Performance Under Pressure - Is associated with high scores on the External Awareness, Analytical Skills, Information Processing, Self-Confidence, and Performance Under Pressure scales, and a low score on the Speed of Decision Making scale.
Clusters, like those above, are used to create reports which can either be relatively general in nature (e.g., a nonspecific teambuilding report) or specific to certain groups of individuals (e.g., managers or engineers or athletes) and/or to specific performance situations (e.g., sales, performance under pressure, etc).

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How Does TAIS Differ From Other Inventories?
  1. In the fact that concentration skills and behaviors, measured by TAIS, in and of themselves, are neither "good" nor "bad." For this reason, high and low scores must be interpreted within the context of the demands of specific performance situations, and with consideration given to the level of pressure being placed on the individual. Concentration and interpersonal skills that allow you to perform at a very high level in one situation, can destroy you in another.
  2. In the ease with which characteristics measured can be directly mapped to unique performance situations this leads to the development of "mission profiles." These are TAIS profiles that identify the particular concentration skills and behaviors required by a performance situation. Individual's TAIS scores are then compared with the mission profile for goodness of fit.
  3. In the fact that the scientifically established link between emotional arousal and an individual's ability to shift his or her focus of concentration allows TAIS to be used to predict how people will behave in high-pressure situations. Individuals lose the ability to adjust their focus of concentration and their interpersonal behaviors to meet changing performance demands. If their dominant characteristics aren't appropriate to the situation, they begin to make mistakes.
  4. In the fact that because scores on TAIS, measure basic performance building blocks, they can be used to quickly identify the root cause of any performance problem. Thus TAIS scores provide the information you need to develop highly individualized and/or situation specific performance enhancement programs.
  5. In that there are two other inventories directly related to TAIS both theoretically and practically, that allow you to:
  6. Take more detailed and in-depth look at those specific TAIS concentration skills that are biogenetically predetermined, and associated with intellectual and/or athletic genius. This assessment is accomplished through the administration of the HPI (High Potential Inventory).

    Use your behavioral observations to rate individuals on the dimensions measured by TAIS. The ICCS (Inventory of Concentration and Communication Skills) is a twenty one item, behavior rating scale that helps you consensually validate your perceptions of others and/or their perceptions of themselves on the performance critical characteristics measured by TAIS.

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What Can You Tell Me About The EPS On Line Assessment Service?
  1. On line services allow you to use TAIS, HPI, and ICCS to assess anyone, at anytime, anywhere in the world, with results of testing available to you instantly.
  2. Makes it possible to administer TAIS in several languages including, English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Chinese, and Japanese.
  3. Gives you access to several different "standard" reports and profiles, including a business teambuilding report, a sales report, a two-person interaction report, a sport report, a management development report, and a, probable errors under pressure report.
  4. Provides you with 24/7 access to your data.
  5. Allows you to compare subjects to a variety of archived normative populations including CEO's, World Champions in Sport, Sales Managers, Police, etc.
  6. Allows you to create subgroups from your data (e.g., middle managers, engineers, pitchers, fielders, sales persons, high performers, low performers, etc.), and to then generate mean TAIS profiles for these groups.
  7. Allows you to create and install your own normative groups based on your subgroups scores.
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How Is TAIS Used In The Selection and Screening Process?

You can either create your own "mission profiles" based on TAIS score patterns, or solicit EPS's help in creating those profiles. Mission profiles are created in several ways:
  1. Comparing subject's scores to pre-existing normative data (e.g., engineering managers, world record holders).
  2. Creating your own mission profile by identifying a group of successful performers within your organization and then generating a mean TAIS profile for the group.
  3. Creating a mission profile by using experts to identify the concentration skills and behaviors required by a given position and then mapping these to TAIS.
EPS has created three reports you can use to help improve your selection and screening or hiring process. The reports, like mission profiles, have been designed to help you focus your questions and/or interview on those areas where the individual is most likely to have problems.
  1. Business Leader Report: If you are hiring middle to senior level managers, this report will compare a subject's TAIS scores to those of successful business leaders (GM, President, CEO). The report clusters TAIS scales into five areas: 1) Need for change and ability to multi-task; 2) Performance Under Pressure; 3) People orientation; 4) Leadership and competitiveness; 5) Freedom from distraction and emotional control.
  2. Management Development Report: This report is designed to identify the particular performance errors an individual is most likely to make when placed in a high pressure situation. These include: 1) Becoming too focused on details, vs. getting too many things going on at once; 2) Reacting without adequate thought; 3) In sport situations, trying too hard, vs. becoming tentative; 4) Taking too big a risk vs., failing to take needed risks; 5) Becoming too confrontive vs. too supportive.
  3. Two Person Interaction Report: This report is most often used when an individual will be moving into a new reporting relationship. The report has been designed to anticipate where the two individual's concentration and interpersonal skills will compliment or conflict with each other.
When hired, test results are then used to anticipate possible issues, and to identify ways for dealing with them should they arise. This is particularly helpful for speeding up the integration of new hires, and for reducing the length of time it takes them to become productive.

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How Is TAIS Used In Teambuilding?

There are many definitions of teambuilding, for our purposes, teambuilding involves helping two or more individuals work together more effectively. The use of TAIS often varies depending on the teambuilding situation:
  1. Teambuilding might involve working with two people, a coach and a single athlete, a manager and a direct report, a physician or dentist and a nurse or technical assistant, a husband and wife.
  2. Here the two person interaction reports are helpful.

    Use of the ICCS in combination with TAIS is often helpful in identifying specific places where members of the team's perceptions disagree. The ICCS report can be very helpful here.

  3. Teambuilding might also involve helping a group of individuals accomplish a common goal or objective, one they wouldn't be able to accomplish alone. A senior management team might consist of a President or Chief Operating Officer, a Chief Financial Officer, a VP of Sales and Marketing, a VP of Research and Development. A team in the military might consist of a team leader, an explosives expert, a communications expert, an engineer, and a medic. Sports teams are composed of individuals with different skill sets and/or physical and mental attributes depending on their position within the sport.
  4. Depending on the level of trust and willingness to share information from TAIS, a program might start by computing a mean profile for the team, and then comparing each person's scores to that mean. In the training session, the leader talks about the mean profile and it's relative strengths and weaknesses and points out that individual team members will be similar in some ways but not in others.

    Often, the mean profile for the team can be used to identify a group goal or objective. For example, testing of the Canadian National Basketball team revealed that the team as a whole, made decisions more slowly than most NBA players. In response to this group decided to work as a team to improve the speed with which they made decisions and reacted to situations.

    As trust develops between members of the team, individual results can be shared, and issues related to individual members can be worked on. A single team member may need to improve his/her willingness to confront issues, the other team members can assist in this by reminding the person, coaching them, and supporting their efforts to be more confrontive. You may also decide at this point to use the two-person interaction report and/or the ICCS report to improve alignment and cooperation between team members.

  5. Teambuilding might involve working with large numbers of subjects who routinely come into conflict with each other because of their oppositional responsibilities. For example, a program might focus on improving communication between engineering and purchasing, or between sales reps and the backroom people that support them, or between planners and implementers.
  6. Often, within organizations, the roles and responsibilities of one group act as a check and balance system for another group. Purchasing for example is tasked with getting the best price for a product. Engineering is tasked with ensuring that the product purchased meets quality and safety standards. Engineers will error on the side of being too conservative, costing the organization money, and purchasing will error on the side of overlooking quality and/or safety issues. Ideally, the two groups work together to find the best solution for the organization. In reality, there is often a lack of trust between the two groups which interferes with effective teamwork. When this occurs TAIS can be used to help the two groups understand each other better, depersonalize the conflicts that occur, and help to improve communication and trust. These programs typically start by:

    Creating two subgroups (in the example an engineering subgroup and a buyer or purchasing subgroup).

    Generating mean profiles for the two subgroups.

    Discussing the two profiles and helping the two groups see where their different concentration and interpersonal skills come into conflict and why.

    Teaching them how to use our own TAIS-enlightened techniques to minimize defensiveness, and to increase their ability to play off of each others strengths.

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How Is TAIS Used For Performance Enhancement and/or Management Development?

From an applications perspective, there is little difference between the creation of a performance enhancement program (usually sport) and a management development program. In both cases, the end objective is to raise the level and/or consistency of performance in some area. In both instances, programs may be developed to address a specific problem or identified issue, or they may be developed in the absence of an identified issue, because there is always room for improvement.

When there is an identified issue (e.g., "choking in high pressure situations," "failing to hold people accountable," "failing to take the initiative," "reacting without anticipating the consequences of one's actions," etc.), TAIS is used to get at the root cause of the issue. For example, an individual could be failing to hold others accountable for several reasons:
  1. The person's need for control may be low.
  2. The person may lack confidence.
  3. The person may be too supportive and not confrontive enough.
  4. The person may be to extroverted and too concerned about pleasing others.
  5. The individual may be too hands on, finding it easier to do things him/herself than holding others accountable.
TAIS scores allow you to differentiate between these various reasons, because scales measure the building blocks of any performance situation. Once the specific issue or root cause is identified, the development of an intervention program is relatively easy. In the absence of any identified issue TAIS can be used to help you anticipate potential problems by checking to see how well the individuals dominant scale scores on TAIS fit with the performance situations the person finds him/herself in. Three standard reports can help you with this:
  1. Athlete's Mental Edge (AME) Report: Provides a thorough description of the different situations an individual would be expected to perform at a high level in, as well as identifying situations where problems are likely to occur. Where problems are likely to occur, the report offers suggestions for monitoring and improving performance.
  2. Management Development Report: Identifies the decision-making and interpersonal mistakes an individual is most likely to make under pressure. The report provides examples of the different types of mistakes and offers suggestions as to how to manage them.
  3. ICCS Report: When the issue involves a disagreement between how an individual sees his/her performance and others see it, the ICCS report can be extremely helpful. One or more individuals fills out the ICCS rating form and the ratings are then compared with the individual's self-perception as revealed by TAIS.
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When and How Would I Use the TAIS Profile?
  1. As a professional summary, of the person's performance strengths and weaknesses.
  2. As a template, to create a mission profile on.
  3. As a tool for teambuilding (e.g., to plot out the mean team or subgroup(s) profile.
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When and How Would I Use the Business Team Building Report?

As supporting material (e.g., reminding people you work with of issues, providing a stimulus for discussions) that individuals can take away from development, teambuilding, or counseling sessions.

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When and How Would I Use the Sales Report?

As supporting material (e.g., reminding sales persons you work with of issues, providing a stimulus for discussions) individuals can take away from development, teambuilding, or counseling sessions.

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When and How Would I Use the Athletes Mental Edge Report?

As supporting material (e.g., reminding athletes you work with of issues, providing a stimulus for discussions) individuals can take away from performance enhancement, teambuilding, or counseling sessions.

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When and How Would I Use the Business Leader Report?

As part of a management development program, especially when specific developmental issues have not already been identified. Since the comparison group is GM's and CEO's, the report is particularly useful for individuals who have the potential to move up in the management ranks.

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When and How Would I Use the Two-Person Interaction Report?

As a tool to anticipate, and/or, get at the root cause of interpersonal conflicts between two people (e.g., coach and athlete, manager and direct report, husband and wife). In this sense it has application to selection situations, as well as to teambuilding and/or development.

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When and How Would I Use the High Potential Inventory (HPI)?

The HPI is a tool that is helpful for identifying and working with exceptional individuals in either sport or business. It's best use is to help identify the specific steps an individual might need to take to "enter the zone" in sport, or to "get into the flow state" in business.

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When and How Would I Use the Inventory of Concentration and Communication Skills Rating Scale?
  1. The ICCS acts like a 360 degree rating scale. Anytime there appears to be differences of opinion as to an individual's skill sets or abilities, the ICCS can be helpful.
  2. The ICCS is also a useful training tool for leaders, helping them develop greater self-awareness, and awareness of others. Without the ability to accurately assess one's personal strengths and weaknesses, and the strengths and weaknesses of others, it's impossible to build and lead an effective team. The ICCS report identifies areas of differing perception and offers suggestions as to how to resolve these.
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Why Would I Want to Create Subgroups?
  1. By creating smaller, more homogeneous subgroups out of your data, you make it possible to identify critical performance relevant differences between job roles (e.g., engineers and sales persons), which can improve your selection process for the groups, and can help you facilitate communication between different subgroups.
  2. By creating smaller, more homogeneous subgroups from your data, you can identify critical differences between levels of performance (e.g., by creating a group of high performers and a group of poor performers).
  3. By creating a subgroup of individuals that have been through a particular training program and comparing their mean to a group that has not (e.g., conflict management) you may be able to demonstrate the effectiveness of your training.
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Why Would I Want to Generate a Mean TAIS Profile?
  1. Generating mean profiles for homogeneous groups is often a less threatening way of talking to them (in a group setting) about the meaning of test scores, than asking them to share their scores with the group.
  2. Generating mean profiles for different groups, but groups that interact with each other, you can often identify areas of conflict and help them take steps to resolve the conflict.
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Why Would I Want to Create My Own Normative Data?

Although it may be interesting to see how your scores compare to those of presidents of companies, or to world champions in sport, it is probably more performance relevant to see how your scores compare to those of your peers, individuals you work and/or interact with on a daily basis.

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What Other Products and/or Services Does EPS Provide?
  1. EPS will work with you to create TAIS generated reports that are customized to the needs of your clients.
  2. EPS will help you develop mission profiles for specific jobs or assignments within your organization.
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