T he
A ttentional &
 I nterpersonal
S tyle Inventory

Performance Report for:

Joe Sample


Comparison Group:
Business Executives


Copyright © 1974–2023 by Grandlark Investments, Inc.
Used under exclusive license to TAIS Performance Systems, Inc.
699 Cardero Street, Suite 502, Vancouver, BC V6G 3H7 Canada
All rights reserved.


Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
2. TAIS Scale Profile
3. Attentional Styles
4. Preference for Diverse Activities
5. Orientation towards Rules & Risk
6. Drive and Confidence
7. Ways of Dominating and Competing
8. Decision Making Style
9. Orientation towards Others
10. Communication Style
11. Conclusions & Recommendations
12. Recommended Printing Options
13. How to Save This Document


Welcome to your TAIS Performance Report.

The Attentional & Interpersonal Style Inventory (TAIS) measures constructs crucial to effective performance, especially performance in high pressure situations. It has been used as an aid for training and selection in business, sport and the military. Organizations like Citibank, General Motors, Harley Davidson, the Navy SEALS, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency, the Boston Celtics, and U.S., Canadian, Italian and Australian Olympic teams have all benefited from TAIS.

The usefulness of this report will depend upon how honestly and accurately you have evaluated yourself. With valid results, you will be in a better position to identify performance environments, jobs, and missions that will play to your strengths. Your TAIS results will emphasize how you are likely to react under stressful conditions and will illustrate how pressure affects your ability to concentrate, stay motivated, and communicate effectively. This is precisely the information you need to develop the ultimate performance-enhancement program.

While this report should, in general, validate what you already know about yourself, TAIS information provides a unique opportunity to learn more.

We wish you enhanced performance!

How To Read Your Results

This Performance Report details your scores on each of the TAIS scales.  The scales measuring Concentration skills appear first, followed by the Interpersonal Characteristics scales.

Each section in this report brings together analyses of your tendencies in related areas.  Each section follows the same format, presenting a summary of your performance before offering detailed explanation and ACTION POINTS which may help guide your development.

The graphic representation looks like this:

TAIS Scores are presented as percentiles ranging from 0.1 to 99.9.  The percentile compares your score to a standard norm group.  The average score on each scale for the standard norms is 50.  Your score is represented as the heavy black line.

Your scores are also compared with a more specific comparison group.  The comparison group scores are represented by the gray shaded area on the graphic.

In this report, the gray shaded area encompasses 67% of the scores for the Business Executives group.  Therefore if your percentile score falls outside the gray shaded area, you can conclude that you scored significantly different from "typical" Business Executives.

TAIS Scale Profile

Attentional Styles 


TAIS inventory is unique in that it incorporates concentration skills along with intra and interpersonal characteristics in its overall assessment of performance. To concentrate effectively, you need to be able to shift both the width and direction of your focus of attention in response to the changing demands of performance situations. The attentional scales on TAIS measure two things: 1) Your ability to develop the different types of concentration required to perform effectively, and; 2) Your ability to shift back and forth between the different channels of concentration at appropriate times.

Because TAIS measures the basic elements of concentration, scores from the inventory can be used to identify the specific skills individuals need to work on to improve their performance.


This scale measures an individual's sensitivity to what is going on in the environment.

Low scorers:
  • show little awareness of what is going on outside of their immediate task
  • may fail to make adjustments to performance
High scorers:
  • are aware of what is going on, even when focused on another activity
  • are sensitive to subtle interpersonal cues
  • may have a tendency to be too reactive.

External Distractibility
This scale measures how easily an individual can be distracted from what they are doing by external factors, such as noise, interruptions and other activities.

Low scorers:
  • are not easily distracted by interruptions, and are able to keep their focus on their main task.
High scorers:
  • find they are fairly easily distracted from their main task by interruptions
  • may be more comfortable in one-on-one interpersonal situations
  • may stay away from busy or chaotic situations.


Analytical / Conceptual
This scale measures an individual's ability to engage in big-picture analysis, planning, and complex problem-solving.

Low scorers:
  • tend to react to events, rarely planning ahead
  • are uncomfortable when forced to use analytical abilities for sustained periods.
High scorers:
  • consider all aspects of a situation
  • are able to put current events into a bigger context
  • enjoy conceptual and complex problem-solving
  • may make mistakes because they over-analyzed or over-complicate situations.

Internal Distractibility
This scale measures an individual's tendency to be distracted by irrelevant thoughts and feelings.

Low scorers:
  • can keep a clear focus on their current task without irrelevant thoughts or feelings intruding.
High scorers:
  • lose their current track of thought quite easily by focusing on irrelevant thoughts or feelings
  • may experience their own thoughts happening so fast they cannot keep up with them.


Action / Focused
This scale measures an individual's ability to narrowly focus attention on one thing, to discipline one's self, to follow through, and to avoid being distracted.

Low scorers:
  • may not be able to pay attention to one thing for very long
  • may fail to follow through or adequately attend to details.
High scorers:
  • can pay attention to one thing for sustained periods
  • are dedicated and able to follow through on even boring routines
  • can be counted on to pay close attention to details.

Reduced Flexibility
This scale measures how likely an individual is to make mistakes because of narrowing attention too much, thereby either not noticing other relevant factors or focusing exclusively on irrelevant thoughts and feelings.

Low scorers:
  • rarely make mistakes because they fail to shift attention from external to internal and vice versa.
High scorers:
  • make mistakes because they fail to shift attention frequently enough from external to internal or vice versa
  • make decisions without adequate information
  • suffer from "tunnel vision" at certain times.


You have indicated that you are having more problems than normal paying attention as you would like. Either you are more easily distracted than most people or your standards are so high that you were harder on yourself while answering TAIS inventory questions than most people have been. There are some people who constantly compare themselves to perfection (e.g., our Olympic divers, people whose parents thought an A- was shameful). In any case, you feel that you should be able to handle distractions better.

Pay special attention to your attentional strength in the following paragraphs. Build on it. Then learn which style of concentrating you use least effectively and work on that when it is required. Finally, the biggest chance of improvement is to learn to reduce your major distraction which is identified. We have found that learning to recover from one's most typical attentional error leads to qualitative improvements in performance.




You have indicated that your greatest attentional strength is the ability to focus your concentration. The capacity to narrow one's attention on a given task or person and ignore irrelevant happenings or thoughts is required to reach the top of one's profession. Successful entrepreneurs, musicians, and coaches are often dominated by a single-minded pursuit of a well-defined goal.

All the awareness and ideas have little value until someone acts on them, follows through and takes care of the details. You are uncomfortable until a task is completed up to your standards.

Your point of pride is, "I GET THINGS DONE--RIGHT."

You are probably renown for your organized, even meticulous ways, for completing tasks on time. Your meetings show this style, as they probably adhere to specific agendas.

Under pressure, your tendency to focus your attention can create problems. Your perfectionistic tendency is both a positive force toward accomplishment and a burden. Business situations often demand that you deal with interruptions or juggle tasks. You can become too rigid, immobilized by your need for everything to be just so before you move on.

COMPENSATING THROUGH STRENGTH. Because you concentrate so well, you prepare so thoroughly that you overlearn where to look and what to think of. Knowing these things beforehand reduces your dependence on awareness and analysis on the spot. Once you know a process which works you will follow it productively.


When you become absorbed in a task, you do a fine job of tuning out the distractions. In the process, you also lose your awareness of some events and people in your surroundings which you need to know about. This combination of low scores suggests that you feel least comfortable with direct supervision or frequent monitoring of your subordinates or coworkers. Your style is not ideal for management by wandering around.

Simply put, you miss out on the big picture when you focus on details. You are best interacting with one person at a time. When listening you are likely to focus on one part of the message to the exclusion of the others. You might hear the words and miss the spirit or tone of the communication.

* The more relaxed you are the better your peripheral vision.

* It's important for you to learn thoroughly a strategy of checking your surroundings regularly like you look in your rear- view mirror while driving in traffic.

* Team Building. People who read the environment more quickly and accurately than you can be your eyes and ears while you tie up the loose ends, provide the action and follow through.


It's difficult -- no impossible -- to pay attention to everything. All human beings get distracted from time to time. If you have eyes and ears, the environment will distract you, at least occasionally.

When your attention strays, it seems to be most often due to getting caught up in what's happening in your surroundings. Events either irritate you, make you feel rushed, or are more attractive than what you are supposed to be concentrating on. You tend to get caught in your surroundings when you should either be focused on something or mentally figuring things out.

You have indicated that you get distracted by your environment more than most people do, at least you feel that you are too sensitive to what is going on to get things done up to your satisfaction.

External distractions fall into three kinds: those due to boredom when you are less interested in what you are supposed to pay attention to than you are in what is going on around you (out the window, for example); those due to feeling irritated (things like the phone ringing bother you because you think they should not be so intrusive), and those due to feeling rushed ("stop the world I want to get off.").

For more on how to figure out what to do about your most common attentional lapse, check with the professional giving your this feedback or Enhanced Performance Systems about Attention Control Training. The professional will help you decide which of the three types of distraction gets you off target most frequently and what to do about it. In general, learning to "say hello AND good-bye to distractions" is probably one of the quickest ways to improve your performance. As you learn how to identify quickly when you are distracted, center yourself, and redirect your attention to the task at hand, you will find that your ability to recover from mistakes will improve.


Preference for Diverse Activities 


Jobs differ in the variety of activities they require and the amount of information which persons in them are expected to handle. People differ along this dimension, too. Some are stressed by having too few things to do, others by having too many. People who score high on this scale are indicating that they are "information junkies," liking to juggle many tasks at once. Those who score low on this scale generally prefer to do one thing at a time and are like people in the crafts, doing something nearly perfectly before moving on. This scale measures your preference for diverse activities and the actual number of different events happening in your life.


Information Processing
Low scorers:
  • prefer linear tasking
  • feel stressed by having too many things to do
  • generally prefer to do one thing at a time
  • behave like craftspeople, wanting to complete something perfectly before moving on.
High scorers:
  • prefer multitasking
  • may get bored when there are  too few tasks
  • like to juggle many things at once.

You have indicated that you keep on target, you concentrate well. Perhaps more than most people you are able to stay on target, to finish a task once you start it. Your style is to finish one task before starting another. Apparently, one way you accomplish this is that you keep your list of things to do simple. You seem to try to juggle fewer things than do many others.

In many ways, your style makes more sense than it does to try to do too many things at once. The biggest concern for your future revolves what happens when your job requires you to keep up with many happenings at once, to deal with frequent interruptions.

* You will need to learn some form of stress management when your job responsibilities enlarge.


Orientation towards Rules & Risk 


Measures the probability of strict adherence to a set pattern of thought or behavior.  High scorers are more likely to act spontaneously, take risks, and think and act in "out of the ordinary" ways.  High scorers who are not easily distracted tend to "live by their own rules."  For this reason, while others may see them as impulsive, they typically view themselves as colorful or risk takers.  They feel stressed when their patterns of thought or behaviors are confined within predefined boundaries.   Low scorers abide by rules and policies, are conventional and thus generally responsible.  They feel stressed when others are not behaving according to rules or expectations.

Orientation towards Rules and Risk
Low scorers:
  • prefer to stick strictly to rules and policies
  • are conventional and generally responsible
  • tend to feel stressed when asked to break or bend the rules.
High scorers:
  • are more likely to act spontaneously and take risks
  • tend to push limits and resist restrictions
  • are willing to make up or bend rules when necessary
  • may be regarded by others as impulsive.


You have indicated that you have a greater tendency to become distracted and confused by your thoughts and/or by the demands placed upon you by others and your surroundings than most of the population. Associated with such confusion is the real possibility that you will act impulsively, losing control over your behavior, saying and/or doing things that you later regret. If this occurs too often for your expectations, your self-esteem may suffer.

* Often the difference between doing something rash and staying in control is a moment's centering or reflection. Learn to simply redirect your attention to the task at hand when you recover.

* All of us have self-protective mechanisms which keep us from acting on every impulse. Compare those situations in which you maintain self-control and poise with those in which you become confused and act without thinking things through. See if you can transfer your ability to deal with some situations to those which have been tough for you.

* Avoid situations which are likely to set you off. Wisdom means being sensitive to your limitations and acting accordingly. For instance, learn a graceful way to stay at arm's length from people or situations which make you angry.

* Team Building. Contract with others to respect your signals (e.g., closed door) that you are working. Arrange for someone you trust to take you aside when you are a bit out of control.

Drive and Confidence 


The twin towers of dominance are the desire to have control over what happens and the self-confidence to believe one's approach is the right way.  These two characteristics are like fire.  Fire, properly controlled, fueled progress in early civilizations.  Out of control, fire destroys.  The drive to succeed and take a leadership role accompanies many -- but not all -- leaders.  Similar levels of drive are also found among many people with behavioral problems, even some with criminal records.  So much of the direction in which this drive takes one depends on who is the master of the power and how it is applied. 

CONTROL (of others)

Indicates how much individuals like to control others and actually take charge or assumes a leadership position. 


Measures the extent to which people think they are competent at doing things and how good a person they think they are. 


Reflects how critical people are of themselves.  Very high scores tend to accompany depression.  This scale often reflects temporary problems in the personal or professional lives of participants, and it subtracts from the self-esteem which they are feeling at the time of assessment. 

Low scorers:
  • prefer to take a laissez-faire, 'hands off' approach to managing others
  • accept leadership roles with reluctance
  • may be uncomfortable if put in charge.
High scorers:
  • want to be in charge
  • actively seek leadership roles
  • May be uncomfortable when not leading.

Low scorers:
  • lack confidence
  • doubt their abilities
  • do not recover quickly from mistakes.
High scorers:
  • are confident
  • believe they are very competent
  • recover quickly from mistakes.

Low scorers:
  • may not often reflect on their actions or their consequences
  • appear confident in their abilities.
High scorers:
  • may be reflecting on temporary problems they were experiencing when they filled in the forms
  • may have a tendency to be too hard on themselves.

Your overall need to be competitive and controlling in challenging situations is within the average range (35th to 65th percentile). Unless key people around you are much more, or much less, driven to achieve, this particular area should not be a source of difficulty.

* Team Building. Many people in sales, business, and police work are highly competitive. You seem less driven to always come out on top than they are. You find it easier to delegate and work together, to compromise, to be patient. You can learn from them and they from you.

At least when you responded to the questions, your self-esteem was on the low end (below 35th percentile). Part of this, perhaps a large factor in your low self- esteem, was your high score on the scale we call "self critical." This scale subtracts from your self-esteem. In most cases, an elevated self-critical scale is a temporary matter, reflecting something which was bothering you when you took the instrument (e.g., problems at work or with an important relationship). If this is temporary for you, it means that you are typically about as confident as most people and when you settle disturbing matters, you will bounce back.

Some people are self-critical (or depressed or feeling guilty) as a way of life. For those with a lot of self confidence to burn, this approach may spur them to achieve more as they are never satisfied with their efforts. For you, though, it appears that you are being so hard on yourself that it is probably subtracting from your effectiveness. It is sapping your optimism and may keep you from trying things for fear that you will not succeed. There are two bits of advice to help you. One is to learn enough control of your attention so that you can become so absorbed in the process (whether it is trying to sell something or hit a golf ball) that your natural talents come out without worrying about "winning or losing." If this does not work, you may need to seek some counseling about the cause of your being so hard on yourself.

Minus the lower self confidence which may be temporary, your profile is typical of those in middle leadership positions. You have the style of a good team player, one who can take charge when necessary but is not eaten up by the excesses of highly competitive people. Your ego is not likely to get in your way. You rarely overestimate what you can accomplish.

One reason you are not extreme in your drive to succeed or dominate may be that you donít like to (or choose to) compete, "fight," or argue to get your way. You may say your piece and let it go at that.

Issues of control and delegation make or break most organizations and their leaders. No one can do everything. Leaders need to balance doing it themselves and delegation. One of your strengths probably is your balance on this matter. While we have to give most highly driven and arrogant people the advice to let go of the, "If you want something done right, do it yourself," approach, you may err the other way. More to the point, you appear to lack the "killer instinct" which it takes to get to the top in many cut-throat organizations. If this is not your goal, you are probably going to do well at a comfortable level so long as those around you appreciate your middle-of-the-road style.

It is hard to give advice to those with your middle-range confidence and need to control others. Obviously, there are more people like you than there are at either the extreme high end or low end. Still, there are many reasons why people score in the middle on this key issue in any organization or family for that matter. Some people simply do not like the demands on their energy and attention which leading others takes. There is so much competition for top positions that not everyone is willing to sacrifice to attain them. One reason you are not extreme in your drive to succeed or dominate may be that you donít like to (or choose to) compete, "fight," or argue to get your way.

* Team Building. Your place in organizations depends upon how much demand there is for you to take charge and how driven the people around you are. Highly controlling people need to have competent followers who are not obsessed with the need to be in charge. This will work for you so long as no one takes advantage of you.

* You do need to work on developing your confidence. Start with those areas where you do feel good about your competence and build on those.

Ways of Dominating and Competing 

Entire books could be written about the way control needs and self-confidence play out in personal and professional relations.  Many variables affect their use including anger vs. support, impulse control, and attentional preferences and distractibility (see other sections of your report for your tendencies on these variables).  Foremost allies for control and confidence are the characteristics of physical orientation or competitiveness and expression of ideas.  They are both included here because a) some people have not had the chance to compete physically, and b) dominance in business is more often intellectual than physical.

PHYSICALLY COMPETITIVE people try to dominate in physical ways and are prone to keep score as they have in athletic contests even in other arenas whether appropriate or not.  They like challenges.

INTELLECTUALLY COMPETITIVE (or expression of ideas) scale indicates how likely people are to express what is on their minds.  By talking a great deal, many leaders dominate the thoughts and actions of others. 

Physically Competitive
Low scorers:
  • shy away from physical challenges
  • are not driven by easily measured results.
High scorers:
  • 'keep score' as if in active competition
  • seek to dominate others physically, for example through body language.

Intellectually Competitive
Low scorers:
  • tend to keep their thoughts to themselves
  • tend to avoid arguments.
High scorers:
  • tend to try to dominate conversations, and influence the thoughts and actions of others.

You have indicated an average drive to compete athletically or at least you do not have a strong history of playing varsity sports or the like. In this case, to discern how competitive you are in general, you need to check your scores on the prior section combining need for control and self esteem. It is quite possible to be highly driven without showing it physically. Overt athletic competition is only one way a drive to excellence can be manifest although it is one of the most obvious ones. Thus, pay more attention to high, medium, or low scores on the control and self esteem scores. It is likely that you may lack the "killer instinct" to make it to the top in highly competitive organizations which are conducted under the old rules.

You have indicated that you are not likely to try to dominate conversations. Your score on expression of ideas is below the lower 35th percentile. Thus, your scores are different from most top-level executives and sales people who score above average on competitiveness and at least average on directing conversations either through expressing their ideas or asking questions for which they need the answers. In either case, leaders make things happen, they are rarely laissez-faire. You on the other hand, tend to sit back and let others go to the front. You probably leave many meetings without getting your ideas or concerns expressed. You need to know that many people will interpret your silence as agreement.

Because many of us tend to form our self image while we are still in school (grade school and junior high), you may have more ability than you have indicated in these areas. If you did not think of yourself as gifted intellectually, you probably underestimate the value of your thoughts.

Your scores may be lowered because you were not encouraged to or allowed the opportunity to participate or compete. This is especially likely the case on the physical domain but you may have come from a family which did not value one or both of these styles. Perhaps you did not have a good model for ways to compete effectively.

In any case, you have probably been avoiding leadership more than occasionally. Even though you are not likely to regularly express your concerns to the group, you are probably experiencing increasing resentment about others leading you, often those who have less talent than you do.

You need to work on the following:

* Centering, learning to relax when you need to take charge.

* Building on the areas where you are confident.

* Making deals with those in charge to call on you when you are the expert.


Decision Making Style 


This scale provides an indication of the individual's speed of decision making.  High scorers make slower decisions, tending to sacrifice speed for the sake of accuracy.  People who are cautious often worry about matters.  Low scorers make quick decisions and are more likely to err because they end up sacrificing some accuracy for the sake of speed.  They tend to become impatient with delays. 

Decision Making Style
Low scorers:
  • make fast decisions
  • willing to sacrifice some accuracy for speed
  • likely to become impatient about delays.
High scorers:
  • make decisions more slowly
  • value accuracy over speed
  • may have trouble with fast-moving situations.

You tend to make decisions more slowly than most people do. You deliberate and worry before you commit yourself much more than most leaders in business and sales. This is where the problem exists for you. You are likely to work with at least somebody who makes decisions more quickly than you do. Not only are you someone who is inherently cautious, you tend to become quite anxious when things go wrong (like getting a bad start in an interview or a speech). Your worries and anxiety can cause you to experience brain lock, even panic, which blocks your performance especially your ability to think on your feet.

Differences in terms of decision making between you and others can be stressful for both parties. Feeling rushed upsets you. You feel the thoughts whirling around in your head without clarity. At the same time, others are likely to become frustrated and impatient, ready to move on before you are.

To be sure, there are times when "haste makes waste." Caution can result in better decisions. Still there are situations which demand a decision, even one less than perfect, in order to get the organization off dead center.

* Team Building. Develop a basic strategy for making decisions when others are waiting for the word to proceed. At such times, you have the opportunity to use others as resources. Many successful people have learned that sharing their pros and cons about a matter with someone else can clarify their course of action. Trusted people can tell you to get going and act on a course of action which emerges.

There are times when everyone has problems concentrating effectively. Frequently you feel that pressures and internal distractions interfere with your performance. Many of your concentration errors occur when you overanalyze things or get stuck on one worry and do not react quickly enough to rapidly-changing situations.

* Stress-management techniques promise to aid your performance a great deal. Learning to relax to clear your head of worries will also increase your consistency. You will become less likely to make a decision under pressure only to find that once your anxiety is reduced you see you could have handled it differently. Typically when this happens, the recognition that you could have handled it better will recreate anxiety. You may find yourself attempting to correct the uncorrectable. Consider bosses criticizing their employees or parents their children. After they realize they reacted too harshly, they may bend over backwards to make amends. As a result they may give undeserved rewards or overlook things they should correct. When you fall into such a pattern, others will either be confused or take advantage by listening only to the messages they want to hear. Obviously it is better to avoid these mistakes than to try to correct them. Once mistakes are made, you need space and a clear head to decide what needs to be done or not done as the case may be. Seek trusted counsel.

Orientation towards Others


Measures the extent to which people seek out and enjoy the company of others. High scorers are quite outgoing, like to be the center of attention. Individuals in sales and service occupations tend to score higher on this scale than people who are involved in more technical activities. Low scorers tend to be shy. 


Measures your need for personal space and privacy. High scorers indicate an enjoyment of time alone. Low scorers generally become stressed when they have to be alone for any length of time. Because each of these scales is defined in a positive manner, some people legitimately score high or moderately high on both of them. Such people are saying that they like being with other people, AND they like being by themselves. 


Low scorers:
  • do not have a strong need to be around others.
High scorers::
  • are very outgoing
  • may like to be the center of attention.

Low scorers:
  • do not have a strong desire for personal space and privacy .
High scorers::
  • enjoy time alone
  • want personal space and privacy.

Your scores indicate both your need to be involved with others (extroverted) and your desire for personal space and privacy (introverted) are in the middle range. Apparently your needs are fairly evenly divided between enjoyment of others and a desire to be alone with your own thoughts and activities. This gives you a flexibility which is moderately rare (but not so unusual as some people think). You are capable of working with others yet also comfortable working on things by yourself.

* Team Building. Although it should be noted that a balanced need like yours is perfectly acceptable (it may actually be the healthiest way to be), your pattern of behavior is likely to confuse others, especially those who are emotionally involved with you. Because most individuals tend to be either more extroverted or more introverted, people tend to expect one pattern or the other, not both. Your balanced need makes your behavior more difficult to predict. Other people don't know when they approach you if you will be ready to socialize or if you will want to be alone. If they lack self-confidence, they may take it personally when you elect to be alone. They may feel you are really extroverted and that your choice to be alone simply reflects a desire to avoid or reject them, rather than a real desire for privacy for that time period.

* You can avoid this confusion and needless hurt feelings by sharing openly with others the reasons you have for refusing an invitation. You might even show them this part of the report in order to demonstrate that your tendencies are generally not dependent upon your attitude toward that person.

Communication Style 


Measures your willingness to speak up in front of others. High scorers like to express their thoughts and ideas. The higher you score the more likely you are to talk too much. Low scorers find themselves feeling stressed by situations that require them to speak up in front of others. They tend to underestimate the value of their input. 


Measures your willingness to confront others, to set limits, and to express your anger. The higher you score the more challenging and confronting you are. The lower you score the more difficulty you have setting limits and saying no. Thus, others are likely to take advantage of you. 


Measures your willingness to express positive feelings and support to others. The higher you score the more often you reach out in a positive, supportive way and the more you need to receive such in return. Being positive helps in positions with considerable contact with people and when participating in team efforts. 


Expression of Ideas
Low scorers:
  • feel stressed when they have to present their ideas to others
  • tend to underestimate the value of their ideas
  • may not speak up even if they have something valuable to contribute.
High scorers::
  • are comfortable expressing thoughts and ideas
  • may risk talking too much.

Expression of Criticism & Anger
Low scorers:
  • find it difficult to set limits, or say no
  • are uncomfortable with confrontation and conflict.
High scorers::
  • are more likely to confront or challenge others
  • may be too critical.

Expression of Support & Affection
Low scorers:
  • have little need to receive or give support
  • work well in environments that do not provide positive reinforcement.
High scorers::
  • are supportive to those around them
  • have an optimistic and positive perspective on the world
  • are most comfortable in a positive environment.

You definitely tend to emphasize the negative when you express yourself. And you are not shy about expressing yourself. You are much more likely to express your anger than your ideas or your support. Apparently, you are fairly easily irritated by many things because you express more criticism and anger than 84 percent of the population. You are only moderately expressive of your ideas (scoring between the 30th and 60th percentile). What loses out most frequently is your tendency to be supportive and affectionate (in the lower 30th percent). To be sure, you are quite capable of handling most conversation under normal circumstances and you probably do so well unless you are frustrated or feel stress. You apparently have to be very comfortable with someone to express much support. To get a visual image of the imbalance in your pattern of expression, check the three graphs above.

You are good at standing up for yourself. You get to the point in discussions, without tap dancing around issues. You don't tend to get sidetracked by the need to please people or get their approval. You can play hardball.

A positive aspect of your approach is that people donít have to wonder what bothers you. Obviously, though, there are people who may be intimidated by your candor. Groups which hide their concerns may need your stimulus even though not everyone is ready for it.

You have been expressing your opinions freely so long that it probably does not seem unusual to you. In fact, you are probably thrown off by those who keep things to themselves or who pretend to like everything.

People who express themselves most of the time but keep certain things to themselves (like what irritates them) are likely to confuse you the most. Many people are uncomfortable with sharing their anger in a straightforward manner.

* When you get angry or feel critical of something, you need to center yourself. Take a deep breath to calm yourself down and refocus on the entire aspect of the situation not just what is irritating you. Once you are centered, you are in a position to handle the next two recommendations.

* You need to work on saying positive things BEFORE you are critical of the proposal. Even though most organizations are not mature enough to handle overt criticism of plans and procedures, it is healthy if handled properly. Nonetheless, most people need more support and affection than criticism and reality. You err in the harsh direction. Your justified critical comments will be better received if you sprinkle some compliments in where deserved. You need to increase your sensitivity to those things people do right versus what they do wrong.

* It is crucial that you learn to phrase your critical comments carefully. There are ways to ask questions which donít put people on the spot yet get at the same point. For example, "Iím wondering about your thinking when you did X," makes the other person more comfortable and less defensive than, "Why did you do X?" You need to practice this approach under the watchful eye of a coach who you canít intimidate.

* You need to learn to listen, to take a deep breath and allow input from others. You must find a way to be active in your listening (paraphrase what the other person said, say things like "uh-huh") to keep your attention on what the others are saying without drifting off into your own thoughts. Remember that active listening is nonjudgmental, though.

* Team Building. When possible, pair yourself with someone who is more supportive and less harsh than you are. Learn to let this person respond first to most people, especially those who can be devastated by criticism. If the soft approach does not work, you can step in.

How big a problem is your critical nature? Check to see if you have any of the following tendencies which are likely to increase the likelihood of problems. If you have a high need to control matters, you are likely to get frustrated when things donít go your way and lash out at the cause. If you are impulsive, you are even more likely to show your temper when frustrated. Being easily distracted or anxious makes your trigger more easily set off.

Conclusions & Recommendations

No psychological test or performance measurement is perfect.  There may be one or more hypotheses in your TAIS Performance Report that you do not agree with or view as inaccurate.  Here is how EPS recommends you deal with those:

The purpose of the TAIS is to target your performance strengths and weaknesses.  This assessment is the first step in improving your ability to perform effectively under pressure.  The best way to make use of the information contained in your TAIS Performance Report is to:
  1. Thoroughly catalogue your strengths and try to put yourself in performance environments that play to those strengths
  2. Understand and seek to be aware of your vulnerabilities under pressure and endeavor to keep those vulnerabilities from interfering with performance
  3. Select 2 or 3 of the vulnerabilities listed in your TAIS Performance Report as targets for your performance enhancement program
  4. Use the recommendations contained in the Report in addition to other performance enhancement products available from EPS
Keep in mind that any performance enhancement program requires commitment, dedication, and time.  Meaningful changes do not happen overnight.  World-Class performers focus their energies on improving performance by eliminating mistakes in high pressure situations.  The TAIS Performance Report gives you the information you need to take your performance to the next level.

Good Luck

1. Introduction
2. TAIS Scale Profile
3. Attentional Styles
4. Preference for Diverse Activities
5. Orientation towards Rules & Risk
6. Drive and Confidence
7. Ways of Dominating and Competing
8. Decision Making Style
9. Orientation towards Others
10. Communication Style
11. Conclusions & Recommendations
12. Recommended Printing Options
13. How to Save This Document

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